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The art and science of writing hidden messages so that no one suspects the existence of the message, a type of security through obscurity. Message can be hidden in picture or audio file for example. Uses least significant bits in a file to store data.

  • A. Steganography
  • B. Avalanche effect
  • C. Cryptosystem
  • D. Key Schedule

Answer: A

Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video.
The first recorded use of the term was in 1499 by Johannes Trithemius in his Steganographia, a treatise on cryptography and steganography, disguised as a book on magic. Generally, the hidden messages appear to be (or to be part of) something else: images, articles, shopping lists, or some other cover text. For example, the hidden message may be in invisible ink between the visible lines of a private letter. Some implementations of steganography that lack a shared secret are forms of security through obscurity, and key-dependent steganographic schemes adhere to Kerckhoffs’s principle.
Incorrect answers:
Avalanche effect – the desirable property of cryptographic algorithms, typically block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions, wherein if an input is changed slightly (for example, flipping a single bit), the output changes significantly (e.g., half the output bits flip). In the case of high-quality block ciphers, such a small change in either the key or the plaintext should cause a drastic change in the ciphertext.
Cryptosystem – a suite of cryptographic algorithms needed to implement a particular security service, most commonly for achieving confidentiality (encryption) Key Schedule – an algorithm for the key that calculates the subkeys for each round that the encryption goes through.


Jane is looking for an algorithm to ensure message integrity. Which of following would be an acceptable choice?

  • A. RSA
  • B. RC4
  • C. AES
  • D. SHA-1

Answer: D

Integrity. In information security, data integrity means maintaining and assuring the accuracy and completeness of data over its entire lifecycle. This means that data cannot be modified in an unauthorized or undetected manner.
An important application of hashes is verification of message integrity. Comparing message digests (hash digests over the message) calculated before, and after, transmission can determine whether any changes have been made to the message or file.
SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm 1) is a cryptographic hash function which takes an input and produces a 160-bit (20-byte) hash value known as a message digest – typically rendered as a hexadecimal number, 40 digits long. It was designed by the United States National Security Agency, and is a U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard.
Incorrect answers:
RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) is one of the first public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission.
RC4 (Rivest Cipher 4 also known as ARC4 or ARCFOUR meaning Alleged RC4, see below) is a stream cipher.
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is a subset of the Rijndael block cipher


A _________ is a digital representation of information that identifies you as a relevant entity by a trusted third party.

  • A. Digital Signature
  • B. Digest
  • C. Hash
  • D. Ownership stamp

Answer: A

Digital Signature
A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for verifying the authenticity of digital messages or documents. A valid digital signature, where the prerequisites are satisfied, gives a recipient very strong reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender (authentication), and that the message was not altered in transit (integrity).


If the round function is a cryptographically secure pseudorandom function, then ___rounds is sufficient to make it a “strong” pseudorandom permutation.

  • A. 0
  • B. 1
  • C. 2
  • D. 3

Answer: C

Michael Luby and Charles Rackoff analyzed the Feistel cipher construction, and proved that if the round function is a cryptographically secure pseudorandom function, with Ki used as the seed, then 3 rounds are sufficient to make the block cipher a pseudorandom permutation, while 4 rounds are sufficient to make it a “strong” pseudorandom permutation (which means that it remains pseudorandom even to an adversary who gets oracle access to its inverse permutation). Because of this very important result of Luby and Rackoff, Feistel ciphers are sometimes called Luby-Rackoff block ciphers.



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